Grammaticalization means the entire process of go from a totally fledged lexical product so you can a grammatical morpheme over durations

Grammaticalization means the entire process of go from a totally fledged lexical product so you can a grammatical morpheme over durations

Grammaticalization means the entire process of go from a totally fledged lexical product so you can a grammatical morpheme over durations


sixteen tu The new REFLEXIVE PREFIX When you look at the ZULU – A great TYPOLOGICAL Angle Sonja E. Bosch In this post I’ll investigate the fresh new roots of one’s reflexive prefix from inside the Zulu, investing special attention to the process of grammaticalization in which lexemes turn into grammatical formatives. As the reflexivization in a number of Bantu dialects would be opposed, the content have been around in the type of an effective typological study. In the Lehmann s () conversation of one’s phenomena which are known as reflexive, it is fascinating to see he assumes on four types of reflexives, namely 0) autophoric nouns which are average nouns such as for example muscles, breath, soul, direct one ple, within the Sanscrit the brand new noun dtman definition breath, soul, as well as in Basque, brand new noun burua definition direct, are accustomed to show the equivalent of English worry about. Autophoric nouns utilized since the reflexives usually are followed closely by a beneficial possessive pronoun, such as another analogy away from Vedic: Vedic (1) bdlam dadhana dtmani energy:acc place:part getting electricity when you look at the himself (ii) reflexive nouns being nouns saying the meaning care about and absolutely nothing otherwise, such as the German selbst me personally and Finnish itse since illustrated about adopting the examples: 344

17 Italian language (2) Ich komme selbst I’m upcoming myself Finnish (3) Halu-at-ko lipu-t itse-lle-si? Do you want the fresh entry for your self? When you look at the languages including Finnish, Hungarian and Turkish reflexive nouns take possessive affixes, during almost every other languages such as for instance Italian language or the Love languages, this type of nouns aren’t generally along with possessive pronouns. (iii) reflexive pronouns with the primary intent behind referring to the topic, including the German sich inside the: Italian language (4) Sie waschen sich He is laundry on their own (iv) verbal reflexives which can be verb affixes proving that the action in some way impacts the niche, like in another examples: Swahili (5) a-li-ji-ona SBJ.REFL-discover he spotted themselves Turkish (6) focuk yika-n-di son wash-refl-after dark boy clean themselves Lehmann () stresses your limits between the classes is fluid and you will claims these four kinds of reflexive facets are actually toward a measure from expanding grammaticalization.

To phrase it differently, one can possibly come across this just like the a great continuum regarding changes that will getting depicted below: 345

18 Lexical items Grammatical * morpheme Lehmann (ff) will bring examples in various dialects to help you instruct the changes that have taken place otherwise are nevertheless happening in one class to next. The whole process of change is verified by the Faltz () whom, for his morphological distinction between a couple chief variety of reflexives, particularly NP-reflexives which may put a nominal morpheme acting as lead of the reflexive noun keywords, and you will verbal reflexives, comprising reflexive pronouns which can be cliticized onto the verb, remarks: Dialects may move from that pole into almost every other, actually, such movement are necessarily from the NP-reflexive pole toward spoken reflexive rod. From inside the Zulu reflexiveness is actually understood by means of a prefix which yourself precedes the fresh verb base. The reflexive prefix was invariable fit, which means it’s an effective morphological profile which stays lingering no matter what the class that their antecedent belongs. This really is demonstrably represented on after the advice into the Zulu: (7a) Umfana wazishaya the latest-guy the guy-himself smack the boy struck themselves (7b) Intombazane izibona esibukwini the fresh-girl she-herself-see in-echo Her notices by herself about echo Within these advice -zi- is the reflexive morpheme and the procedures of hit and see is directed right back through to new particular grammatical sufferers, that is, boy and you will woman. It is interesting one into the generative knowledge, a critical perception is done with the root design off sentences that has had reflexives, namely NP1 – V – NP1. On the surface, like a property are ungrammatical on the Bantu languages if for example the a couple NPs try co-referential and you can the same in form, elizabeth.g. (8) *USipho wakhohlisa usipho * Sipho cheated Sipho Within the Zulu eg a sentence is generated grammatical because of the insertion regarding a good reflexive prefix in the verb and you will the fresh new removal of the co-referential noun. elizabeth.g. 346


Marijana Mutavčieva

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